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ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL





Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of metals, and is measured in as many different ways. Scratch hardness is used by the geologist, who has constructed Moh's scale as follows: Talc ...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare alloys now used in steel manufacture. Originally nickel was added to give increased strength and toughness over that obtained with the ordinary rolled str...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic function of opposing the disintegration and reconstruction of cementite. This is demonstrated by the changes in the critical ranges of this alloy steel takin...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel and the chr...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium, carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon steel ...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel, but this is dependent on the carbon content. High carbon materially adds to the brittleness, whereas low-carbon, pearlitic-manganese steels are very tou...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a long time. The celebrated and ancient damascus steel being a form of tungsten-alloy steel. Tungsten and its effects, however, did not become generally r...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five years, but they have not been widely exploited until since the war. Very large resources of molybdenum have been developed in America, and the mining co...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubbles or blow holes forming while steel is solidifying. In fact, steel after it has been melted and before it has been refined, is wild and gassy. That is ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been the object of steel makers for years to eliminate it. On cheap grades of steel, not subject to any abnormal strain or stress, 0.1 per cent phosphorus is...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greater detriment to steel than phosphorus. High sulphur up to 0.09 per cent helps machining properties, but has a tendency to make the steel hot short, i.e., ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering purposes. It also gives the elastic limit, tensile strength, elongation and redu...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings and similar work...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012 per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365 per cent carb...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from 11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable extent for exhau...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from 1,290 to 1,380 deg.F. and cooling in air or quenching in water or oil. After this treatment the forgings will have a hardness of about 200 Brinell and a...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. The physical properties do not vary greatly when the carbon is within the range...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut surfaces will rust. Surfaces finished with a fine cut are less liable to rust. Ground and polis...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecting rods are so severe that the methods of securing the desired qualities will be of value in other lines. The original specifications called for chrome-n...